Ottoman Empire Map, History, Facts

Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299 by Osman Ghazi and consistently grew from 1299 to 1683. The first 10 rulers of the Ottoman Empire is considered as the most successful kings. In this article, you can discover facts about Ottoman history accompanied by map of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottomans Kings carried these titles: Sultan (Arabic: King, Ruler), Padişah (Persian: Shah Of the World), Khan (Turkish: Referring to ancestors from Central Asia)

Additionally the first two rulers, Osman I and Orhan were called as Ghazi (The warrior) since the Ottomans were no more than a warlike principality then. Murad I (1362-1389) considered as the first Sultan, since he built the foundations of Ottoman army, society, laws of the Ottoman State.

The Ottoman Sultans also carried the title of Caliph (Halifa) from the time of Selim I (1512-1520). Caliph is an Islamic title. Meaning the spiritual leader of Islamic World. This religious title was used by the Ottoman Sultans after the conquest of Mecca and Medina.

Ottoman Empire Map

From this point on, let’s start working on Ottoman history, on the map of the Ottoman Empire.

Foundation Of The Ottoman Empire

The ancestor of Ottomans, Ertuğrul Ghazi settled in Söğüt and Domaniç plateaus. It was neighbor to significant cities of Byzantine Empire, İznik (Nicaea) and Bursa (Prussa). These spots are located in Turkey of today.

Map of Ottoman Empire Over Time

Ottoman Empire Map Over Time
Ottoman Empire Map at its peak

Osman Ghazi

Founder and first Sultan, Osman Ghazi had inherited a warlike clan from his father Ertuğrul Ghazi. He soon converted this clan into a Turkish princedom. Sultan Osman leaded his community successfully. He had also been a pioneer of Ottoman kings for expanding the boundaries in the direction of the west.

Ottomans aimed to be the rulers of Europe as well as Asia. The Ottoman Princedom officially established in 1299 by the Osman Ghazi (also known as Othman).

The First Ten Sultans of The Ottoman Empire

Osman Ghazi, Orhan Ghazi, Murad I, Bayezid I, Mehmed I, Murad II, Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Bayezid II, Selim I (The Resolute), Suleiman I (The Magnificent). These accomplished Sultans ruled the Empire from 1299 to 1566. This is the most successful era of Ottoman Empire. In other words: The rise of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Elite Infantry: Janissaries

Ottomans managed to create a great war-machine named Janissaries. Devşirme refers to the system in which healthful and powerful children were taken from the villages in Eastern Europe and trained in military affairs and religion in Janissary army centers.

Ottoman Janissaries in the Battle Of Mohacs 1526

Ottoman Janissary Troops

Conquest Of Constantinople By Mehmed II

Mehmed II (The Conqueror) was the second most famous ruler of Ottoman Empire (After Suleiman The Magnificent). This map is referring the capturing of Constantinople by the Ottomans. (1453) Ottomans proclaimed the new-conquered city as their new capital. Named it as Konstantiniyye. Its modern name: Istanbul was given in the late Ottoman era.

Map Of Ottoman Empire in 1453

Fall of Constantinople 1453

Reign Of Selim I (The Resolute)

Ottomans, which grew into multi-national Empire after the conquest of Constantinople, captured Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem and Egypt during the reign of Selim I (1512-1520). Ottoman Empire dominated the Silk Road stretching from China and Spice Route stretching from India to Europe; therefore, it had a source of endless income.

Selim I’s Conquests In The Middle East

Ottoman Empire Map Timeline
Ottoman Empire Map Largest Borders

Reign Of Suleiman the Magnificent

The rise of Ottomans hit the top with Suleiman I. Comprehensive reforms were made in law, education, architecture, social life and art and great developments were achieved in these fields. Therefore Sultan Suleiman is mentioned as Suleiman the Magnificent in European history.

Map Of Suleiman The Magnificent’s Empire

Sultan Suleiman Empire Map
Suleiman the Magnificent

Sultanate Of Women

From the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, the era called “Sultanate of Women” started. The wives of the Emperors had strong influence on the administration. This period lasted from 1550 to 1656. The first influential Empress of this period considered as the Hürrem Sultan (Also known as Roxelana)

Ottoman Empire kept on expanding even after the death of Sultan Suleiman due to the successful state administration by the scholarly Grand Viziers (Prime Ministers).

Reforms at Ottoman Empire in 19th Century

Social and cultural developments like Renaissance and Reform in Europe did not resonate with Ottomans; as a result of which, Ottomans were left behind in terms of art, culture and military.

During this worsening period for the empire, some able Sultans began modernization periods but their effort could not prevent the empire from going into downfall. Traditional Janissary units were removed and Nizam-ı Cedit (New Army) was founded as a part of westernization.

Ottoman Soldiers In 19th Century

Ottoman Army after Modernization

Decline Of The Ottoman Empire On a Map

Below map displays the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The territories that lost from 1829 to 1914 depicted with vivid colours. Constant battles devastated the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century. They fought against Austria and Russia most of the time.

Map Of Ottoman Empire 1800s

Decline of Ottoman Empire

Fall Of The Ottoman Empire Map 1914

Ottomans fell after the World War I (1918) as they fought alongside with Austria and Germany, and large territories were lost to England, Russia and France by the end of the war.

Ottoman army was decisively defeated in major battles except for the Battle of Gallipoli. The allies pushed hard to pass through the Dardanelles to seize the capital, Istanbul, but they failed.

The Ottoman resistance was unexpectedly tough in Çanakkale (aka Dardanelles). The defence operations were lead by a young General, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of Turkish Republic.

Ottoman Empire Map 1914

Ottoman Empire Map 1914
Ottoman Empire WW1

Turkey Of Today

Turkey was eventually founded from the heartland of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul would no longer be the capital but still the largest and most important city of Turkey. Ankara is the capital of modern Turkey.

Why Ankara Is The Capital And Not Istanbul?

The first parliament of Modern Turkey was established in Ankara during the Independence War. When Istanbul was under British occupancy. Turkish Independence Army (Led By Mustafa Kemal Ataturk) had to fight against allied powers from 1918 to 1922 to re-capture Anatolia (aka Asia Minor Peninsula and can be seen on the below map). Operation was led by the members of Turkish Parliament which is based in Ankara.

Map of Modern Turkey

Maps Of Ottoman Empire With History And Facts

  • Notice: Ottoman Empire Maps are picked randomly from the internet. They are used by many people in their blogs. Therefore I do not think the copyright would be a problem. They almost became anonymous on the web. If you think that one of the maps is belongs to your website, I will remove it when you declare it.

By Serhat Engül

8 Comments Add yours

  1. Hello,

    Appreciate the history and pictorial maps to go along? Can I possibly download this information to share with others as I am currently sharing the rise and decline of the Ottoman empire with Bible students?

    Thank you,


    1. Hello Melinda, I am glad that you like it. I can see your mail adress from admin panel. So I will send you the content through e-mail. Hope that works. Cheers, Serhat.

  2. blank AbduLatif says:

    You got a mistake on your article, where do you get the name “Palestine” From Map nº5? This name was a mokery name created by Titus when he destroyed Jerusalem and renamed the kingdom of Judea by the name of “Palestine” and it was inhabitted by greeks and romans. The Ottoman empire called that Zone “Siria”. And then when they lost the war against the Britts, the Britts called the Zone “Siria”, Palestine reviving the name of mokery that Titus created. In conclusion, no palestine never existed in the Ottoman empire, it was called: Siria.

    1. Dear AbduLatif, Thank you for your contribution. First of all, I did not create these maps. As explained at the end of the article, they are collected from internet, in order to visualise and support the story. I checked about your argument. I have not seen any reputable source which support your claims. Britannica says: “The word Palestine derives from Philistia, the name given by Greek writers to the land of the Philistines, who in the 12th century bce occupied a small pocket of land on the southern coast, between modern Tel Aviv–Yafo and Gaza.” It does not mention about any “mockery”. As far as I know Palestine was a common name used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Anyway, thank you for the review.

  3. blank Nadeem Zafar says:

    History always have pluses and minuses depend who wrote it. So Mr. Latif have to understand but under his objection there is an information about Palestine name right or wrong but still it is an info about the name. Serhat you did a good job, the way you describe Ottoman Empire history is very informative and easy to memorize and understand for the history students. Well done! Keep it up.

    1. Hi Nadeem. Thank you very much for the feedback. I am glad to see that you enjoyed the article.

  4. blank Mohammad Adil says:

    Great post man please write more historical articles. Best of luck

    1. blank Serhat Engul says:

      Hello Mohammad, Thank you for the feedback. I will work on new articles.

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