Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299 by Osman Ghazi and consistently grew from 1299 to 1683. The first 10 rulers of the Ottoman Empire is considered as the most successful kings. In this article, you can discover facts about Ottoman history accompanied by map of the Ottoman Empire.
Ottomans Kings carried these titles: Sultan (Arabic: King, Ruler), Padişah (Persian: Shah Of the World), Khan (Turkish: Referring to ancestors from Central Asia)
Additionally the first two rulers, Osman I and Orhan were called as Ghazi (The warrior) since the Ottomans were no more than a warlike principality then. Murad I (1362-1389) considered as the first Sultan, since he built the foundations of Ottoman army, society, laws of the Ottoman State.
The Ottoman Sultans also carried the title of Caliph (Halifa) from the time of Selim I (1512-1520). Caliph is an Islamic title. Meaning the spiritual leader of Islamic World. This religious title was used by the Ottoman Sultans after the conquest of Mecca and Medina.
Ottoman Empire Map
From this point on, let’s start working on Ottoman history, on the map of the Ottoman Empire.
Foundation Of The Ottoman Empire
The ancestor of Ottomans, Ertuğrul Ghazi settled in Söğüt and Domaniç plateaus. It was neighbor to significant cities of Byzantine Empire, İznik (Nicaea) and Bursa (Prussa). These spots are located in Turkey of today.
Map of Ottoman Empire Over Time
Founder and first Sultan, Osman Ghazi had inherited a warlike clan from his father Ertuğrul Ghazi. He soon converted this clan into a Turkish princedom. Sultan Osman leaded his community successfully. He had also been a pioneer of Ottoman kings for expanding the boundaries in the direction of the west.
Ottomans aimed to be the rulers of Europe as well as Asia. The Ottoman Princedom officially established in 1299 by the Osman Ghazi (also known as Othman).
The First Ten Sultans of The Ottoman Empire
Osman Ghazi, Orhan Ghazi, Murad I, Bayezid I, Mehmed I, Murad II, Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Bayezid II, Selim I (The Resolute), Suleiman I (The Magnificent). These accomplished Sultans ruled the Empire from 1299 to 1566. This is the most successful era of Ottoman Empire. In other words: The rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman Elite Infantry: Janissaries
Ottomans managed to create a great war-machine named Janissaries. Devşirme refers to the system in which healthful and powerful children were taken from the villages in Eastern Europe and trained in military affairs and religion in Janissary army centers.
Ottoman Janissaries in the Battle Of Mohacs 1526
Conquest Of Constantinople By Mehmed II
Mehmed II (The Conqueror) was the second most famous ruler of Ottoman Empire (After Suleiman The Magnificent). This map is referring the capturing of Constantinople by the Ottomans. (1453) Ottomans proclaimed the new-conquered city as their new capital. Named it as Konstantiniyye. Its modern name: Istanbul was given in the late Ottoman era.
Map Of Ottoman Empire in 1453
Reign Of Selim I (The Resolute)
Ottomans, which grew into multi-national Empire after the conquest of Constantinople, captured Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem and Egypt during the reign of Selim I (1512-1520). Ottoman Empire dominated the Silk Road stretching from China and Spice Route stretching from India to Europe; therefore, it had a source of endless income.
Selim I’s Conquests In The Middle East
Reign Of Suleiman the Magnificent
The rise of Ottomans hit the top with Suleiman I. Comprehensive reforms were made in law, education, architecture, social life and art and great developments were achieved in these fields. Therefore Sultan Suleiman is mentioned as Suleiman the Magnificent in European history.
Map Of Suleiman The Magnificent’s Empire
Sultanate Of Women
From the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, the era called “Sultanate of Women” started. The wives of the Emperors had strong influence on the administration. This period lasted from 1550 to 1656. The first influential Empress of this period considered as the Hürrem Sultan (Also known as Roxelana)
Ottoman Empire kept on expanding even after the death of Sultan Suleiman due to the successful state administration by the scholarly Grand Viziers (Prime Ministers).
Reforms at Ottoman Empire in 19th Century
Social and cultural developments like Renaissance and Reform in Europe did not resonate with Ottomans; as a result of which, Ottomans were left behind in terms of art, culture and military.
During this worsening period for the empire, some able Sultans began modernization periods but their effort could not prevent the empire from going into downfall. Traditional Janissary units were removed and Nizam-ı Cedit (New Army) was founded as a part of westernization.
Ottoman Soldiers In 19th Century
Decline Of The Ottoman Empire On a Map
Below map displays the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The territories that lost from 1829 to 1914 depicted with vivid colours. Constant battles devastated the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century. They fought against Austria and Russia most of the time.
Map Of Ottoman Empire 1800s
Fall Of The Ottoman Empire Map 1914
Ottomans fell after the World War I (1918) as they fought alongside with Austria and Germany, and large territories were lost to England, Russia and France by the end of the war.
Ottoman army was decisively defeated in major battles except for the Battle of Gallipoli. The allies pushed hard to pass through the Dardanelles to seize the capital, Istanbul, but they failed.
The Ottoman resistance was unexpectedly tough in Çanakkale (aka Dardanelles). The defence operations were lead by a young General, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of Turkish Republic.
Ottoman Empire Map 1914
Turkey Of Today
Turkey was eventually founded from the heartland of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul would no longer be the capital but still the largest and most important city of Turkey. Ankara is the capital of modern Turkey.
Why Ankara Is The Capital And Not Istanbul?
The first parliament of Modern Turkey was established in Ankara during the Independence War. When Istanbul was under British occupancy. Turkish Independence Army (Led By Mustafa Kemal Ataturk) had to fight against allied powers from 1918 to 1922 to re-capture Anatolia (aka Asia Minor Peninsula and can be seen on the below map). Operation was led by the members of Turkish Parliament which is based in Ankara.
Maps Of Ottoman Empire With History And Facts
- Notice: Ottoman Empire Maps are picked randomly from the internet. They are used by many people in their blogs. Therefore I do not think the copyright would be a problem. They almost became anonymous on the web. If you think that one of the maps is belongs to your website, I will remove it when you declare it.
By Serhat Engül